This article has been written by Anmol Mandawra during his internship.


After India’s Independence in 1947, the central government has introduces various educational policies and commission to enhance the education system and increase the illiteracy level in India. In Indian history, the primary time the Education Policy was introduces on 1968 which was framed under the Indra Gandhi government. Second time the Education Policy was introduces on 1986 which was framed under the Rajiv Gandhi government, but further this education policy was modified by the government of P.V. Narsimaha Rao in 1992.
Now, after 34 years later the new education policy was re framed under the Narandra Modi’s government in 2020. This New Education Policy, 2020 has been formulated after an unprecedented process of consultation that involved nearly over multiple suggestions from Gram Panchayats, Blocks, ULBs, and Districts. All this suggestions were incorporated by the HRD Ministry within the final draft of recent Education Policy, 2020. The particular draft content 300 pages.

In May 2016, ‘committee for education of the New Education Policy’ under the chairmanship these days Shri T.S.R. Subramanian, former cabinet secretary, submitted its report. supported this the ministry prepared some inputs for the Draft National Education POLICY, 2016.

In June 2017, ‘A committee for the Draft National Education Policy’ was formed under the chairmanship of eminent scientist Padma Vibhushan, Dr. K. Kasturirangan, which submitted the Draft National Education Policy, 2019 to the Hon’ble HRD Minister on May 2019.

The reason behind to introducing the New Education Policy, 2020. The aim of the Central Government to focuses on the education system directly transforming our nation by providing top quality of education to any or all. But, this policy is rely upon the how government implementing the NEP, 2020 within the true vision of the youth.

In India’s prospective upon the ‘Right to Education’ was inserted within the A.21 (1) of Constitution of India, which says about free education for youngsters ages 6-14. Right to Education could be a fundamental right in 2020 by means of the 86th amendment. The state is sure to formulate a national policy on education to meet its constitutional responsibilities conferred by A.21a, 41, 45, 46 of Constitution of India.

Objective of the New Education Policy, 2020

  1. To improve the standard of the education.
  2. Credibility of education.
  3. Addressing the gaps in implementation.

Three most significant changes within the New Education Policy, 2020

  1. HRD Minister now renamed as Ministry of Education.
  2. GDP investment in education to extend from 1.6% to 6%.
  3. Focusing on gross enrolment ratio it’ll be increased to 50% by 2035.

Some main features associated with New Education Policy, 2020

  1. School Education

In previous education policy in existing Academic Structure that formulated 10+2 concepts which mean in 10 yrs. Include Preparatory and middle stage which implies classes 1 to 10 and another 2 yrs. Includes for secondary stage which implies classes 11-12. But, in step with New Academic Structure, the government formulated the new concept for college education 5+3+3+4: 3 yrs. In Anganwadi/Pre-school and 12 yrs. At school.

▪︎In Secondary Stage (4) – This includes classes 9 to 12 or the secondary and better secondary as we all know them today. The changes suggested at this include a multidisciplinary study where students would be ready to pick and choose ant set of subjects from the available structure. The main focus would air greater critical thinking and adaptability, allowing the kid to choose subjects as per their interests – even technical and humanities.
▪︎In Middle Stage (3) – bearing on the classes 6 to eight, the new structure aims at transforming the pedagogy from the prevailing system to a more experimental learning within the Science, Mathematics, Arts, scientific discipline and Humanities. Focus would get on critical learning objectives and not on rote.
▪︎ In Preparatory Stage (3) – this can be for ages 8 to 11 or classes 3rd to 5th. The main focus would shift to play, discovery and activity based and interaction classroom learning. The main target till this stage would remain on development of the language and numeracy skills, in accordance with the cognitive development of a toddler. Medium of instruction till grade 5 would be home language or tongue or local language. Three languages would be taught to all or any students – and states would decide which of them because education is a part of concurrent list, as per that state has also a power to change the same.
▪︎In Foundational Stage (5) – it absolutely was divided into 2 groups, in first group 3 to six ages focuses by Anganwadi/Pre-school /Baluatika. In second group, this is often for ages 6 to eight or classes 1st and 2nd. It focuses on the multi-level play / activity – based learning of the kid. New Education Policy, 2020 policy expands people 6-14 yrs. Of mandatory schooling to 3-18 yrs. Of schooling.

For Board Exam

▪︎According to the New Education Policy, 2020 Board exam for 10 and 12 are going to be continued, but they’ll be low stake. The main focus is going to be on testing concept and knowledge application.
▪︎Students are given a second chance at boards to boost their score.
▪︎Student is able to choose many of subjects and also the ‘Level’ within which they take board exams.
▪︎There are going to be no hard separation among ‘curricular, extra-curricular or co-curricular, among Arts, Humanities, and Science between vocational or academic streams.
▪︎Co-curriculum and vocational subjects like Sports, Arts, Commerce, and Science are going to be treated at the identical level.
▪︎Student can choose courses as per their performances.
▪︎The school curriculum overhaul will are available in the form within the new National Curriculum Framework for college Education (NCFSE 2020-21) which can be under taken by the National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT).

2. Language

▪︎According to the New Education Policy, 2020. Language puts focus on student’s mother tongue as the medium of instructions.
▪︎Mother tongue, local or regional language as the medium of instruction at least till grade 5, but preferably till grade 8 and beyond.
▪︎Thereafter, the home, or local language shall continue to be taught as a language wherever possible. This will be followed by both public and private school.
▪︎ Research shows that children pick up languages extremely quickly between the ages of 2 and 8 and that multilingualism has great cognitive benefit to young students, children will be exposed to different languages early on.
▪︎The ‘three language formula’ will continue but no language would be imposed on everyone and at least two of the three languages should be Indian.
▪︎The NEP, 2020 only recommends the mother tongue as medium of instruction and not makes it compulsory (up to state to implement).
▪︎ This is a controversial decision as some education expert believes that emphasis should be on English as it open doors to the world.

3. High Education

▪︎ Higher Education commission of India will be setup as a single overarching umbrella body for entire high education, excluding Medical and Legal education.
▪︎ Phasing out of the affiliation of colleges in 15 yrs. And a stage – government wise mechanism is to be established for granting graded to colleges.
▪︎ Moving towards a higher educational system consisting of large, India has more than 800 Universities and 39,000 Colleges. Self-financed coursed have also surged.
▪︎Phasing out of all institutions offering single streams and by end of 2040 all universities and colleges aim to become multidisciplinary.
▪︎Government has a target at least one university in or near every District.
▪︎ Establishment of a National Research Foundation to fund outstanding peer-reviewed research and to actively seed research in universities and colleges.
▪︎Reaffirming the integrity of faculty and institutional leadership positions through merit appointments and carrier progression based on teaching, research, and service.

4. Technology

According to the New Education Policy, 2020, The use of the technology increases day by day in Teaching, Learning and Assessment, Education planning, Digital India Campaign, Administration and Management and Regulation through public disclosures.

According to this, the committee was formed named National Educational Technology Forum (NETF) for introducing the various sources in education for the children/youth.

The sources are-

Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs), Divyang friendly education software, e-content in various languages, invents virtual labs; create online assessment and examination, etc.

5. Finance

The current public expenditure on education both Centre and States in India has been around 4.43% of GDP. According to this NEP, 2020 the government takes initiative that they have to fulfill the prior education policy gaps. The target of government for the New Education Policy, 2020 is 6% of GDP.

6. Implementation

The New Education Policy, 2020 only provides a broad direction and it is not mandatory to follow, because Education is a concurrent list subject, the reforms proposed can only be implemented collaboratively by the centre and state. The government has set a target of 2040 to implement the entire policy. According to Modi’s.

• Criticism/Disadvantages of New Education Policy, 2020

▪︎Anganwadi workers are not equipped or trained to teach, because of the criticism government appoint the committee named Early Child Care Education (ECCE) for providing the High quality of teacher to teach that group lays on the group age 3-6. For the eligibility of qualification for Anganwadi teacher is 10+2 and above shall be given a 6 month certificate programme in ECCE and those with lower education qualification shall have to give a one year diploma programme covering early literacy.
▪︎ One of the biggest loopholes in the new education policy 2020 is that examination will only be taken in 3, 5 and 8th class which will lead to negligence of teachers and students towards studies and at a very age the students can become more careless towards there subjects and eliminating exams will lead to lessor role of parents and teachers in student’s life and the less active students cannot be corrected without taking proper examinations the flaws in his knowledge cannot be corrected.
▪︎ Plus the mindset of students cannot be changed overnight there is a need for a systematic bringing up policy in India most of the schools do not have high standards compared to western countries the first step which the state as well as central government needs to do is to setup world-class level school across the country to ensure students contribution in nation building.
▪︎ And the usage of home or mother rounded till 5th class that means that students of the state will be able to learn the state language till 5 standard but what about the students who have migrated to that state like from Punjab to Maharashtra they won’t be able to learn Punjabi but they would be forced to learn Marathi instead.
▪︎ And Making English as a optional subject till 8th standard will make the student less comfortable to speak up as they gets promoted in the next class in a country like India which is full of different linguistic peoples English is a common source that connects each other as a medium of conversation but eliminating English till 8th standards will only promote hostility towards English and less developed states such as Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh where there is already a deficiency of proper schooling will create more problems if English is given as an optional subject.
▪︎So the new education policy might be a big step towards a progressive India but it also have very much flaws there is a proper need to settle down all the loopholes in the policy so that each and every corner students of the country can take maximum benefit out of hit and we can make Indian educational standards to the heights of western standards.